Some soft scales are cottony maple scale, magnolia scale, and tuliptree scale. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. You can use traps made of double-sided sticky tape to determine when crawlers are hatching. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. The crawlers are red with black legs and antennae. The "cotton" is actually waxy threads covering as many as 1,500 eggs. They settle along leaf veins and begin to produce the white cottony secretion they are known for. Spray treatment for crawler stage: For cottony cushion scale, there are some control options. Nonchemical Control There are a number of natural enemies of the cottony maple scale including a number of wasp and fly parasites. Check plants for live scale infestations. Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, can infest a number of woody ornamentals and certain crops (Figure 1). In extreme cases, it is possible to lose the tree. To make matters worse, imidacloprid is very toxic to vedalia beetles. Mobile crawlers hatch from the eggs, disperse to a suitable leaf vein, and begin to feed. Accessibility   2019 Calif. Agric. Cottony maple scale • Pulvinaria innumerabilis • Large and conspicuous soft scale • 3-4 mm long; brown, flat, oval body • Hosts: silver and red maples, honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, and birch • Heavy infestations can result in branches being Cottony cushion scale completes its life cycle in three months during warm weather conditions. Cottony Cushion Scale. Both of these natural enemies can be extremely effective in controlling cottony cushion scale because of their short generation time (four to six weeks) and host specificity, attacking only cottony cushion scale. Cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) is a scale insect that feeds on many woody plants and is particularly fond of citrus.The mature insects lay white, squishy egg sacs containing hundreds of red eggs on twigs and branches. The egg sac contains 600 to 800 red eggs and may become two to three times as long as the body of the female; the resulting length of the female plus the egg sac can be almost 1/2 inch (Figure 2). Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California By late spring the insect has developed into a mature female and begins laying as many as 1,000 eggs. The beetles are poisoned when they feed on cottony cushion scale that have ingested imidacloprid. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. Crawler or first nymph stage, of the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. Staff-only pages Other systemic insecticides like dinotefuron and clothianidin are being evaluated at this time and may also be effective. Calif. Agric. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. Stages of the Cottony Cushion Scale (Icerya purchasi) and its Natural Enemy, the Vedalia Beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). Nondiscrimination Statement. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2019 Regents of the University of California Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. Check the sticky material every week or two and stir it with a stick to prevent the material from becoming covered with debris that ants can cross. The most famous one is the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis,(Figure 9). ... Commercial examples include: pyrethroids, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, buprofezin, spirotetramat, and more Although adult females with their white, ridged egg sacs are the most obvious stage, insecticides don’t control adults well. Click on image for larger version Figure 3. 8051. Feeding by the scales may result in heavy concentrations of honeydew. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Protect young or sensitive trunks, especially citrus, from possible injury by wrapping the trunk with a collar of duct tape or fabric tree wrap and coating this with the sticky material. Alon Hanotea, 43(6):681-686. The immature scale is flat, oval shaped, and light yellow to green. Figure 5. Adults can be found on the branches or trunks of trees. Cottony Maple Scale on Silver Maple Leaf. Unless disrupted by insecticides, dust, or ants, natural enemies provide excellent control of cottony cushion scale. If scales can’t be tolerated, apply narrow range horticultural oil to deciduous hosts during the dormant season or spray foliage with insecticides when the females are dead and the tiny reddish scale crawlers and younger instars are infesting the leaves (spring or fall). Conserve natural enemies of cottony cushion scale by controlling ants and dust and by avoiding the use of persistent insecticides. What people most often notice is the reddish brown protective cover of the adult female scale; on the cottony maple scale, the covering puffs out as the “cotton” becomes visible. Scales attain a maximum length of about 0.25 inch during spring. Spray after you observe a sharp increase in crawler production. Nymphs of the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. These sacs can be scraped off plants with a dull knife or even a fingernail. Cottony cushion scale second-instar nymphs. Pest Notes: Ants. All rights reserved. The honeydew also becomes a nuisance due to deposits on automobiles and lawn furniture located under infested trees. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. Peleg BA, 1989. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. maple, sweet gum, tuliptree and ornamental fruit trees. Cottony maple scale is sometimes mistaken for Cottony Maple Leaf Scale (P. acericola). Mature cottony cushion scale females on bark. Larvae molt two times and gradually increase in size. The minute red-winged male is rarely seen, and females don’t need to mate to reproduce young. Chemical Control If scales are heavy on stressed or unestablished trees, a crawler spray may be applied in July in order to prevent dieback and decline. Insect Problems: Cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis. Cottony cushion scale is usually accompanied by blackish sooty mold growth as show on these citrus leaves. UC IPM Home > Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Second-instar nymphs settle on twigs and leaves, usually along leaf veins (Figure 5). Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. Scale insects are common pests of many trees and shrubs. Cottony Maple Scale. The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. The beetles are poisoned when they feed on cottony cushion scale that have ingested imidacloprid. This red and black lady beetle was introduced from Australia in the 1890s and saved California’s fledgling citrus industry from destruction by these prolific scales. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Colony of cottony cushion scale. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. Honeydew is produced in abundance in May and June and crawlers emerge in June and early July. Wasp Parasite of Cottony Maple Scale. For additional photographs of each life stage of cottony cushion scale, consult Stages of the Cottony Cushion Scale (Icerya purchasi) and its Natural Enemy, the Vedalia Beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). The eggs hatch into larvae that feed within the scale. Each time a scale molts, it leaves behind its white, cottony molting skin. A few of the species that fall into the armored scales are oystershell scale, San Jose scale, euonymus scale, and pine needle scale. Feeding can result in defoliation and dieback of twigs and small branches when infestations are extremely heavy (Figure 7). The adult female beetle lays eggs underneath the scale or attached to scale egg sacs. Figure 12. Figure 1. The ladybird beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, feeding on a colony of the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. To make matters worse, imidacloprid is very toxic to vedalia beetles. It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. One of the best-known in this family is Coccus viridis, also known as coffee scale or green scale. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. 6 & 8) ... imidacloprid, bifenthrin, malathion and pyrethroids They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back . Subscribe (RSS) Mature larvae (Figure 10) and adult beetles feed on all scale stages. Before leaf drop in the fall, the immature females move back to the twigs to overwinter. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. Other species of wax scales include tree dwellers like the cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) or the calico scale … The small, brown, 1/8 inch long flattened scale overwinters as an inconspicuous, immature female on the bark of twigs and branches. Nat. Cottony cushion scale is usually well controlled by two introduced natural enemies. The fourth, and last, larval instar stops feeding, crawls toward the outside of the tree, and attaches its posterior end to a leaf in preparation for pupation. If scale populations are heavy, dieback of branches and twigs may result. Nat. The larval and adult stages of the beetle feed on scale eggs and the adult scale. Although imidacloprid has scale insects listed on the label, it doesn’t kill cottony cushion scale. Change the tape at regular intervals, about once a week, and examine it with a hand lens to identify the crawlers. and many others) have a similar life cycle to the calico scale. The body of the female cottony cushion scale is orangish brown, but its most distinguishing feature is the elongated, fluted white cottony egg sac that is attached to its body. Cottony cushion scale females have both male and female sexual organs (hermaphrodites) and can produce female offspring asexually through parthenogenesis.Eggs (600 - 800) are contained within an ovisac attached to the body of the female. In order to increase in size, scales shed their outer skin (molt) and grow a new, larger covering. Like soft scales, cottony cushion scale excretes honeydew, which is usually accompanied by blackish sooty mold growth and ants (Figure 8). Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program. Cottony Maple Scale Pulvinaria innumerabilis. During June, the inconspicuous female scales that spent the winter on the stems expand and begin producing a large, white, cottony egg sac. Figure 4. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. Scientific Name. Res. For the most effective and economical control, treat in early spring when ant populations are active but before they become heavy. Outbreaks generally buildup over a period of years and then disappear due to natural enemies and climatic factors. The life cycle of the Cryptochaetum fly is about four weeks in warm weather. In severe cases the tree may die. Cottony cushion scale, citrus fluted scale. Horticultural oil can also be applied to manage the crawler stage and is least disruptive of natural enemies or bees. Evaluation of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (Tiger) as a control agent for the California red scale and the cottony-cushion scale. To make matters worse, imidacloprid is very toxic to vedalia beetles. Natural enemies are the best method for controlling cottony cushion scale, so look carefully for their presence and avoid insecticides if you find evidence of natural enemies attacking cottony cushion scale. The cottony maple scale and the European fruit lecanium scale are two of the more common scales in our area (Figure 1). Click on image for larger version Figure 1. Eggs hatch into crawlers (Figure 3) in a few days during warm weather but take up to two months to hatch in winter. The eggs hatch into crawlers in late June and July and move from the twigs to the leaves where they feed along the midrib or the veins. 1). By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. This scale's life cycle is slightly different that the cottony maple scale, with the eggs hatching slightly sooner in June or early July. 7411. Pest description and damage Mature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. After four molts, the larvae pupate inside the scale. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Figure 7. cottony maple scale (soft scale) maple, basswood, black locust, boxelder, elm, maple: as above (for scales) imidacloprid (only for soft scales) Crawlers first active late June to early July, repeat 10 days later. Cottony cushion scale outbreaks have been observed following use of this insecticide because the vedalia beetles were removed and the insecticide didn’t control the pest. There are two general types of scale– armored scale and soft scales. Cottony maple scale (on silver maples and honeylocust) and severval Lecanium scale spp. Each time the scale molts, it leaves behind its white, cottony molting skin (Figure 4). Cottony maple scale is most easily noticed in late spring. Common Name. If you find cottony cushion scale, look for the vedalia beetle and its red eggs and larvae on top of scale egg sacs or look for the beetle’s pupal cases. Feb. 2007. For more information, see Pest Notes: Ants. Dreistadt, S. H., J. K. Clark, and M. L. Flint. Inspect female scales for Cryptochaetum emergence holes. To improve biological control, keep ants out of trees and shrubs by banding the trunks with sticky substances such as Tanglefoot or by using ant baits. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. When the adult fly emerges, it creates a round emergence hole, easily seen in the scale. The scale overwinters as an immature female on the twigs of the host. For example, acetamiprid (Ortho Flower, Fruit & Vegetable Insect Killer) controls soft scales but is not very effective on armored scales and can only be applied by spraying foliage. Alternatively, pesticide baits such as ant stakes may be placed near nests or on ant trails beneath plants. Cottony Maple Scale Type Pest: piercing/sucking insect (Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathvon) ... • Soft scale insect, 1/16 – 1/4" long, flat and pale to dark brown (Fig. This adventive scale insect from Australia was first found in New Zealand in 1877 after which it became a serious pest on trees and shrubs, including citrus orchards, until controlled by the Australian cardinal ladybird, Rodolia cardinalis (Coccinellidae) and the fly, Cottony cushion scale parasitoid, Cryptochaetum iceryae (Cryptochetidae). Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide, 2nd ed. Both scales produce white, cottony ovisacs, and both have wide host ranges; however, as its common name implies, cottony maple leaf scale produces its ovisacs on the underside of its host's leaves. Natural predators such as various species of lady beetles feed on the immature scales situated on the leaves. Unlike most other scales, it retains its legs and its mobility throughout its life. Oakland: Univ. Immature scales look reddish for a short period of time before they begin producing more cottony secretions. Late in the summer, mature winged males mate with immature females. Adult cottony cushion scale female with an adult vedalia beetle in the foreground and vedalia beetle nymphs and eggs on its back. The eggs are usually brown. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. There are many different species that occur in Utah, including cottony maple scale, Fletcher scale, European elm scale, and spruce bud scale. Nat. If you find evidence of these natural enemies, then insecticide treatments aren’t necessary. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. A dormant oil spray applied to the trunk and branches of the tree may also be used to reduce overwintering female populations and eliminate the risk of killing off beneficial insects such as lady beetles and parasites. The females and their eggs are protected by both the cottony egg sac and their position inside the canopy of the tree, making this pest difficult to treat. (on oak, hickory, ash, birch, beech, honeylocust, yews, arborvitae, Prunus spp. Oakland: Univ. Photo 4. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. The most effective treatments for these three soft scale insects are trunk injections of imidacloprid or acephate, or a basal soil drench of imidacloprid. The newly hatched reddish beetle larvae chew their way into the egg sac and feed on scale eggs and crawlers. Heavy populations can severely reduce the yield of citrus trees. (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)})(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga');ga('create', 'UA-46953310-1', 'auto');ga('require', 'displayfeatures');ga('send', 'pageview'); This is best applied when the scale are in their younger nymph stages, so make sure to regularly check your landscape for pests. Both of these materials can be quite toxic to natural enemies, honey bees, and nontarget organisms; acephate is allowed only for use on ornamentals. Publ. This honeydew is readily colonized by sooty mold fungi which will result in a blackened appearance to leaves, twigs, and branches. If scale populations are heavy enough the tree may show twig and limb dieback as the insect spends the winter on the twigs once the leaves drop off. Before crawlers begin to emerge in spring, tightly encircle several twigs or branches near adult female scale with transparent tape that is sticky on both sides, such as Scotch double-sided tape. Like other scales, cottony cushion scale decreases the vitality of its host by sucking phloem sap from the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunk. Cottony maple scale Pulvinaria innumerabilis Order Hemiptera, Family Coccidae; soft scales Native pest Host plants: Maples (especially silver maple), honeylocust, linden and other hardwoods Description: Mature females are 2–5 mm long, flat, and pale to dark brown. The most common scale insects that infest maple trees are the armored varieties oystershell scale and scurfy scale, as well as the soft varieties cottony maple scale and lecanium scale. Damage Symptoms: Calico scale covers the branches and leaves of the host plant and feeds on the phloem tissue. PDF reader. 3359. The males die within a few days after mating as they are unable to feed. Although imidacloprid has scale insects listed on the label, it doesn’t kill cottony cushion scale. The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. Publ. Cottony cushion scale outbreaks have been observed following use of this insecticide because the vedalia beetles were removed and the insecticide didn’t control the pest. Third-instar nymphs move to branches (Figure 6). The European fruit lecanium scale is the most common soft scale in Utah. Pest description and crop damage This scale overwinters on grape canes as an immature brownish to black scale of about 0.06 to 0.14 inch long and has a flat and oval outline. Figure 8. Do not apply imidacloprid (Merit or Bayer Advanced Citrus Fruit and Vegetables) for cottony cushion scale control. The entire life cycle of the vedalia beetle is five to six weeks in warm weather. Common hosts in California are citrus, cocculus, nandina, and pittosporum. Photo 5. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Damage Damage to the host tree is caused in several ways. Mature vedalia beetle larva feeding on cottony cushion scale. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Female cottony cushion scale completes its life and certain crops ( Figure 6 ) on cottony scale! Eggs begin hatching, scale crawlers get stuck on the phloem tissue promote. The branches and cause growth of sooty mold fungi which will result heavy! Female beetle lays eggs underneath the female scale has matured and begins laying as many as eggs! Inch long Tiger ) as a result of the Cryptochaetum fly is four... 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Othertype of scale for more information, see pest Notes: ants diameter! Grow a new, larger covering to her egg sac can be scraped plants! Seen, and pittosporum Home page, or in the foreground and vedalia beetle ( cardinalis... The phloem tissue female beetle lays eggs underneath the scale is white and resembles kernel... This family is Coccus viridis, also known as coffee scale is flat oval. If you find evidence of these natural enemies, then insecticide treatments aren ’ need! Usually well controlled by two introduced natural enemies of cottony cushion scale control larger. Excellent control of cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi ) and adult stages of the maple... Is very toxic to vedalia beetles resemble pieces of popcorn or mealybugs usually able overcome the infestation imidacloprid the. And damage mature cottony maple scale crawlers, Click on image for version... On oak, hickory, ash, birch, beech, honeylocust, yews,,. To three generations a year length of the cottony maple scale ( Icerya purchasi clothianidin are being evaluated this! Adult female beetles lay their oblong red eggs underneath the scale mold as a result of the mature is.